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Cancer therapy lexicon

Tudástár

A (3) B (7) C (12) E (2) G (1) H (2) I (4) L (4) M (5) N (2) O (7) P (13) Q (1) R (11) S (6) T (6) U (1) V (2) W (2) X (1)

A

Anal cancer is highly treatable and often curable mostly in the early ages. Its first sign is bleeding. It is often discovered by pathologist. Anal cancer starts in the anus. Anal cancer is fairly rare, much less common than cancer of the colon or rectum. Most squamous cell anal cancers are linked to infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) 
Antibodies
 Antibody is a protein molecule produced by the immune system in the blood to fight diseases by attacking and killing harmful bacteria.

Apoptosis is also called programmed cell death.  Apoptosis is a genetically regulated process leading to the death of cells.

B

Benign tumor characterized by irregular glandlike structures or spaces lined or associated with vacuolated mesotheliumlike cells. Benign tumor can appear in any part of the body without causing any problems, they have no tendency to grow or spread to other parts of the body. They can be removed or left. They do not invade or destroy surroundings tissues.  

Biopsy is a surgical treatment for obtaining a specimen of tissue from the living body for diagnosis a suspicious area by pathologists with microscopic examination. A biopsy diagnosis can give the correct treatment planning.

Bladder cancer forms in tissues of the bladder. Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 73. 

Blood tests, tumor markers
Chemicals in the blood, produced by certain cancer. Measuring the markers is useful for diagnosis (may also detect tiny cancers, for exemple PSA-prostate cancer) and following the course of treatment. 
Bone Cancer-Soft tissue and bone sarcoma

Bone cancer is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells that make up the bones of the body. This is also known as primary bone cancer. Primary bone tumors are tumors that arise in the bone tissue itself, and they may be benign or malignant (bone cancer). Benign (non-cancerous) tumors in the bones are more common than bone cancers.

Primary bone cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung).
Brain tumors
Brain tumors is the growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Brain tumor compresses and displaces normal brain tissue. Brain tumor is the second most common type of cancer in children. 

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. It may be several years before a lump appears. It has no definite cause. The genetic factors, personal history and diet all can play a role. 

C

Cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells. This term is used for more than 200 different diseases in which abnormal cell (with abnormal chromosome from genetic change or damage) send wrong or different message from the one it should give. This cell grows rapidly, divides again and again without control and can invade adjacent tissues. It starts to form a lump which is called a malignant tumor. After many months, or years the lump can have a size that can be felt, seen on X ray or can cause pressure symptoms (pain, bleeding). For many of these cancers has no definite cause. If cancer is untreated can follow a fatal course.

Cancer mortality Rate = (Cancer Deaths / Population) × 100,000

Carcinomas are more specific forms of cancer.
The carrier frequency is 13.56 MHz. Our 13.56 MHz is also only a carrier, which has information to
transfer; the fractal modulation (time fractal fluctuation) helps to optimally select
between the malignant and healthy cells.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death by cancer in women. 90-95% of cervical cancers contain human papilloma virus DNA which is sexually transmitted. Cervical cancer is caused by abnormal changes in either of these cell types in the cervix.
Cervix
Cervix is the lower portion of the uterus.
Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy involves the use of chemicals to treat disease. More specifically, it refers to the destruction of cancer cells.

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. 
Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to slow or stop the growth of rapidly dividing cancer cells in the body. At Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA), our medical oncologists are experienced in delivering targeted, individualized chemotherapy while proactively managing side effects.

 

Childhood cancer
Cancer is the second common cause of death in children between the ages of one and 14. The tumors react differently to treatment. Hyperthermia treatments can be applied only patients aged 18-80 years.
Heat is more effective when combined with radiation. Many tumors are suspectible to hyperthermia and tumors can often be heated to higher temperatures than surrounding nomral tissues. Heat makes cells more sensitive to radiation by preventing them from repairing radiation damage. Hyperthermia and the other therapies are most effective if it is applied on the same day or the following day after the other treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy).
Heat und radiation work best together when the two treatments are given simultaneously or within an hour of each other.  (more at Combination of Hyperthermia therapy)
All tumors disappear.
A CT (Computerized tomography) scan is able to create a cross-section images of the body. This machine may show cancer or metastases earlier and more accurately than other imaging methods.

E

Endoscopic biopsy means the removal of a sample of tissue through any of various types of endoscope. 
A number of research studies have been conducted internationally. 

G

Gynecologic cancer
Gynecologic cancer is an uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells that originate from the reproductive organs. There are several types of gynecologic cancers which include cervical, gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), primary peritoneal, ovarian, uterine/endometrial, vaginal and vulvar cancers.

H

Health
A state of well-being of an organism or part of one, characterized by normal function and unattended by disease. Definition of WHO: "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity."  
Hyperthermia and the other therapies are most effective if it is applied on the same day or the following day after chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

I

Immune System
The immune system is the set of tissues which protect the body from infections.
Treatment or prevention of disease (such as an autoimmune disorder, allergy, or cancer) that involves the stimulation, enhancement, suppression, or desensitization of the immune system.
A very early stage of cancer in which the tumor is localized to one area. 
Cancer that spreads to the healthy tissue (oppositet of in situ cancer)

L

Leukemia
The most common childhood cancer is leukemia.
It is often performed using an external applicator whisch is pleaced on the outside of the body over the tumor. The applicator is connected to equipment that supplies different types of energy (microwave, radiofrequency, ultrasound) will heat the tumor cells. Localized heating can be accomplished internally (inside the tumor).  
A cancer confined to the side of origin without evidence of spread.
Lung cancer
Lung cancer (also known as lung carcinoma) forms in tissues of the lung. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. In case of lung cancer the cells divide in the lungs uncontrollably. This causes the growth of tumors that reduce a person's ability to breathe.

M

They have no border and invade surrounding tissues. They may spread to other parts of the body.

The spreading of cancer from one part of the body to another by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. Cells are like those in the original tumor.

The modulation is far from any sinus or other periodic patterns; it is a 1/f spectrum having definite templates for its construction. In some personalized cases, a definite template is used for the fractal pattern, which is copied from the actual character of the tumor pathology or any other specialty of the target. Oncothermia modulation is one of the three specialties of the Oncothermia treatment. Its efficacy and its role in the personalization process have introduced an effective tool for the apoptotic cancer cell destruction. The modulation makes a definitely and significantly higher tumor destruction compared to the nontreated side. 
MRI-Magnetic resonance imaging
Machine for creating images of the body using a magnetic field and radio waves, images can be taken in all three directions (planes) 

m

The generic (scientific) name of Oncothermia is modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT). It is a further development of the heating method, heating selectively the malignant cells instead of the complete isothermal heating of the tumor-mass.

Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT, trade name: oncothermia) is an emerging curative treatment method in this field due to its highly selective actions. The impedance-matched, capacitive-coupled modulated radiofrequency (RF) current is selectively focused in the malignant cell membrane of the cancer cells. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27551529)

For more information please read under the world Oncothermia.

N

National Cancer Institute

Research center in Bethesda, Maryland for supporting a broad portfolio of research helping the early detection and diagnosis of cancer and its precursors. 

Website of the institute: https://www.cancer.gov/ 

The primary way to destroy a cell is necrosis. This effect is a massive, unconditional stimuli accompanied by severe hypoxia and liberation of toxins. In fact no internal energy is used from the biosystem to reach this state. Cells swell in their integrity and in parts (organelles) also. The cell disintegration is complete. Disruption of organelles, DNA breakdown and lyses of plasma membrane occur. The process stimulates inflammation and neutrophil infiltration to degrade dead cells. The process is toxic. This process includes pathologic and physiologic stimuli using internal energy sources (ATP) to perform the process. Contrary to necrosis it affects usually scattered individual cells, causing death of isolated cells. Contrary also to necrosis the cells contract, shrink in this process, chromatin condenses and apoptotic bodies are formed. DNA laddering occurs, the DNA is fragmented to base-pair units. The cell membrane is not lysed, only becomes blebby. Apoptosis is generally not inflammatory, and no neutrophil infiltration occurs; the apoptotic bodies are phagocytized and intact. The final state could be a secondary necrosis or more likely a phagocytosis ends the process. Necrosis is more abrupt than apoptosis, which takes more time to be performed. This enhanced time from initialization to completion works in apoptosis like a “memory,” which accomplishes a definite program by the given stimuli.

O

Some normal genes may be transformed into genes that promote the growth of cancer.  Its presence may give us information about how likely it is that a cancer will spread.

Oncological hyperthermia is an ideal combination therapy; it provides synergies with most of conventional treatment modalities.

Oncologist is a physician who specializes in cancer therapy.

Oncology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and study of cancer.

Treatment-termocamera

Oncothermia is a new kind of hyperthermia. The generic (scientific) name of oncothermia is modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT). It is a further development of the heating method, heating selectively the malignant cells instead of the complete isothermal heating of the tumor-mass.

 

 

The main characteristics of Oncothermia:

 

Oncothermia is active in all solid tumors. Oncothermia has no side effects and has only rare contraindications. Oncothermia is a combined energy absorption with modulated electric field. Oncologists or other medical specialists treat with the Oncothermia method worldwide. During the Oncothermia treatment the tumour tissue is selectively treated, the malignance is destroyed, the healthy tissue is unaffected. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is improved by the Oncothermia treatment. Oncothermia treatment reestablishes the intercellular junctions, supresses the dissemination. Oncothermia is also called modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT), induces immunogenic cell-death. Oncothermia improves the quality of life, reduces the side-effects of other treatments. Oncothermia is a proven method since 30 years with more than 250.000 treatments yearly.  

 

You can read the following links for getting a general overview about the Oncothermia:

 

Oncothermia method

http://oncotherm.com/en/oncothermia-method

Oncotherm products description with video

http://oncotherm.com/index.php/en/products

Oncothermia books

http://oncotherm.com/en/oncothermia-books

Oncothermia Journals

http://oncotherm.com/en/browse-volumes

Clinical publication

of Oncothermia

http://oncotherm.com/en/clinical-publications

Collection of experimental publications of Oncothermia

https://oncotherm.com/en/collection-of-experimental-publications-of-oncothermia

Worldwide Oncothermia clinics

http://oncotherm.com/en/oncothermia-clinics

Oncotherm research & education partnerships

http://oncotherm.com/en/research-education-partnerships

Oncotherm certificates

http://oncotherm.com/en/quality-management

 

Ovarian cancer
Cancer occurs when cells in an area of the body grow abnormally. Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer among women.
Ovary
The ovary is a female reproduction organ that produces ova or eggs.

P

Treatment that aims to improve well-being, relieve symptoms or control the growth of cancer.
Pancreas
The pancreas is about 6 inches long, flat gland that is located in the abdomen behind the stomach. It produces enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help with digestion. 
Pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer begins when abnormal cells in the pancreas grow and divide out of control and form a tumor.
Some tumor remains.
A physician perform and interpret laboratory tests and exam tissues. 
Study of disease by examining body tissues, organs and materials.  
Method of scan for detecting the growth of cells.
An inactive material identical in appearance to a drug given to the test patients under similar conditions.  It is used to eliminate the improvement due to the belief (psychological effect) rather than the effect of a medication. 
Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) is a relatively rare cancer that develops most commonly in women. PPC is a close relative of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common type of malignancy that affects the ovaries. The cause of primary peritoneal cancer is unknown.
Primary tumor
The first place, the place of origin of the cancer. After spreading the name of the cancer remain the name of the primary tumor.
A statement about the likely outcome of disase.

 

The advancement or growth of cancer.

 

The written description of a cancer treatment, including dosages and formulas of any drugs to be administered.

Q

Quality of life is a term for the quality of the various domains in life

R

Radiation therapy means the use of high-energy radiation from X-ray machines, cobalt, radium or other sources for control and cure of cancer. It may reduce the size of a cancer before surgery or be used to destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

The use of high-energy radiation from X-ray machines, cobalt, radium or other sources for control and cure of cancer. It may reduce the size of a cancer before surgery or be used to destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Radiologist is a physician specializes in the use of Xrays, ultrasound, MRI and other imaging techniques to diagnose and investigate disease.

Radiology is a branch of medicine that uses radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

A drug or biological agent givent with th eradiation therapy to increase its effect. 
Regional hyperthermia involves using microwave or radiofrequency applicators to heat large volumes of tissue deep inside the body. 
The shrinkage of a cancer. (its type are the complete and partial regression)
Programs helping to have a productive life. (Physical therapy or emotional support)
The partial or complete shrinkage of cancer.
Failure of a tumor to respond to radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
The habits or conditions that promote the development of cancers. F.e. cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer, overexposure to the sun for skin cancer).

S

Sarcoma
Sarcomas are more specific forms of cancer.
Diagnostic procedures for assessing organs such as liver, bone or brain.
Examination of healthy people who have no cancer symptoms.  
Hyperthermia does not cause any side effects. It can cause burns which tend to heal very slowly. (less than 3% percent of cases.)
They usually stops the normal genes from being transformed. 
A measurement of survival from a disease (f.e.cancer).

T

T-cell
T cell is a type of lymphocyte (also known as T lymphocytes). T cells specialize their immune function to become helper, supressor, or natural killer cells.  
The temperature range from about 41 to 45°C. Hyperthermia treatment utilises temperatures between 39 and 41 degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of a high fever and are well tolerated by the body.
When cure is not possible or the patient has a short life expectancy. More definitions are possible. 
A collection of cells of the same type. It can be epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve.
Tumor
Tumor (lump, mass or swelling) is an expanding lesion of cells. Tumor can be benign or malignant.
A class of genes that suppresses cell growth.

U

Uterine/Endometrial Cancer
Cancer occurs when cells in an area of the body grow abnormally. Endometrial cancer is cancer of the lining of the uterus (called the endometrium).

V

Vaginal cancer is one of the rarest forms of gynecologic cancers. Vaginal cancer begins in the vagina, the muscular tube, also called the birth canal, that connects the outer genitalia to the uterus. Most of these cancers are in the lining (squamous epthelilum) of the vagina.
Vulvar cancer
Vulvar cancer is a rare, abnormal growth on the external female genitalia. Vulvar cancer is primary related to the human papilloma virus (HPV). The vulva includes the inner and outer lips of the vagina, the clitoris, the opening of the vagina and its glands.

W

Whole-body hyperthermia can be accomplished by using hot water blankets, specialized ovenlike devices of other methods. This is a safe procedure, sing temperature up to about 42°C. Whole-body or regional hyperthermia can also be combined with localized hyperthermia to improve results.

World Health Organization (WHO)
Developed guidelines for cancer pain management. 90-95% of all cancer pain can be well controlled using guidelines called the pain Control Ladder. These guidelines separate pain into levels of intesity and suggest tailoring the strength and potency of precribed pain-relieving medications to the intensity. After WHO guidelines doctors try a given drug. The dosage in increased until the patient gets either pain relief or intolerable side effects. In case of too many side effects another drug is tried. Th eguidelines also suggest to manage side-effects treatent too.

X

X ray is an electromagnetic radiation produced by a gas tube or by a hot cathode tube. X ray is an imaging techniques can detect the cancer at the stage when the tumor contains about 1 billion cells generally.