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Vascular Fractality and Alimentation of Cancer

Andras Szasz, Vascular Fractality and Alimentation of Cancer

Background: The basal metabolic rate has a scaling by tumor mass on the exponent of 3/4, while a simple surface-supplied volume of the mass would have a lower exponent, 2/3. The higher exponent can be explained by optimizing the overall energy distribution in the tumor, assuming that the target

is four-dimensional. There are two possible ways of approximating the metabolic rate of the malignant tumor: 1) the volume blood-supply remains, but the surface and the length of the vessel network are modified; or 2) assuming that the malignant cell clusters try to maximize their metabolic rate to energize, their proliferation by the longer length of the vessels. Our objective is to study how vascular fractality changes due to the greater demand for nutrients due to the proliferation of cancerous tissue. Results: It is shown that when a malignant tumor remains in expected four-dimensional volumetric conditions, it has a lower metabolic rate than the maximal metabolic potential in the actual demand of the proliferating cancer tissue. By maximizing the metabolic rate in malignant conditions, the allometric exponent will be smaller than 3/4, so the observed “dimensionality” of the metabolic rate versus mass becomes greater than four. The first growing period is exponential and keeps the “four-dimensional volume”, but the growth process turns to the sigmoidal phase in higher metabolic demand, and the tumor uses other optimizing strategies, further lowering the scaling exponent of metabolic rate. Conclusion: It is shown that a malignant cellular cluster changes its metabolic scaling exponent when maximizing its energy intake in various alimentary conditions.