New publication in Cellsben: Forcing the Antitumor Effects of HSPs Using a Modulated Electric Fieldhttps://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/11/11/1838
The role of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) is a “double-edged sword” with regards to tumors. The location and interactions of HSPs determine their pro- or antitumor activity. The present review includes an overview of the relevant functions of HSPs, which could improve their antitumor activity. Promoting the antitumor processes could assist in the local and systemic management of cancer. We explore the possibility of achieving this by manipulating the electromagnetic interactions within the tumor microenvironment. An appropriate electric field may select and affect the cancer cells using the electric heterogeneity of the tumor tissue. This review describes the method proposed to effect such changes: amplitude-modulated radiofrequency (amRF) applied with a 13.56 MHz carrier frequency. We summarize the preclinical investigations of the amRF on the HSPs in malignant cells. The preclinical studies show the promotion of the expression of HSP70 on the plasma membrane, participating in the immunogenic cell death (ICD) pathway. The sequence of guided molecular changes triggers innate and adaptive immune reactions. The amRF promotes the secretion of HSP70 also in the extracellular matrix. The extracellular HSP70 accompanied by free HMGB1 and membrane-expressed calreticulin (CRT) form damage-associated molecular patterns encouraging the dendritic cells’ maturing for antigen presentation. The process promotes CD8+ killer T-cells. Clinical results demonstrate the potential of this immune process to trigger a systemic effect. We conclude that the properly applied amRF promotes antitumor HSP activity, and in situ, it could support the tumor-specific immune effects produced locally but acting systemically for disseminated cells and metastatic lesions.